The probe particle model ( PP-SPM ) is a home-built simulation package, which enables to simulate scanning probe images with special aims to the high-resolution imaging with functionalized tips. The probe particle model has played an essential role in detailed understanding of the sub-molecular AFM/STM/IETS contrast which enables the unprecedented spatial resolution of moleculas and nanostructures on surfaces. There are several implementations of probe particle model using different levels of complexity



Details about the probe particle model can be found here:


  1. Original paper describing principles of the probe particle AFM/STM
    P. Hapala, G. Kichin, Ch. Wagner, F. S. Tautz, R. Temirov, P. Jelínek
    Mechanism of high-resolution STM/AFM imaging with functionalized tips 
    Phys. Rev. B 90 (2014) 085421(1) - 085421(9).

  2. Importance of the electrostatic force and the mechanism of the submolecular IETS signal
    P. Hapala, R. Temirov, F. S. Tautz, P. Jelínek
    Origin of High-Resolution IETS-STM Images of Organic Molecules with Functionalized Tips 
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 226101(1) - 226101(5).

  3.  Advanced probe particle STM model
     O. Krejčí, P. Hapala, M. Ondráček, P. Jelínek 
    Principles and simulations of high-resolution STM imaging with a flexible tip apex 
    Phys. Rev. B 95 (2017) 045407(1) - 045407(9).

  4. Advanced probe particle IETS model
    Bruno de la Torre, Martin Švec, Giuseppe Foti, Ondřej Krejčí, Prokop Hapala, Aran Garcia-Lekue, Thomas Frederiksen, Radek Zbořil, Andres Arnau, Héctor Vázquez, and Pavel Jelínek
    Submolecular Resolution by Variation of the Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy Amplitude and its Relation to the AFM/STM Signal 
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 (2017) 166001(1) - 166001(6).

  5. Review about the sub molecular SPM imaging with functionalized tips
    P. Jelínek 
    High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips 
    J. Phys.-Condens. Mat. 29 (2017) 343002(1) - 343002(18).